Marcelo de Mattos Salgado
The purpose of this multimedia reporting is to report the trajectory of Middle Eastern stateless people residing in the Brazilian territory, to understand their journey to the country of their social integration. The theme emerged from data from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in 2014, with an alarming number of more than 10 million people stateless or at risk of statelessness worldwide. The main purpose of the site is to present facts that try to answer the reasons why people are considered stateless and the consequences of this. In this way, it contributes, not only to the stateless population, but also to society as a whole in the absence of developments on the subject in the mass media. A long journey has been made in search of stories of stateless people in the country. For interviews, specialists from various areas of resocialization were interviewed, such as: health, education, work and legal; as well as non-governmental organizations with support to the cause and official bodies, such as the National Committee for Refugees (Conare), the Federal Police and UNHCR.
What makes this project innovative?
For the reporting it was necessary to elaborate more clearly the distinctions and eventual similarities between stateless and refugees, concepts often confused by the population, the media and the Brazilian system itself, responsible for entry and recognition in the country. In general, there is a distancing of the national and international media from the subject, and most of the information is only found on websites of Non-Governmental Organizations that fight for the cause. The reporting is exclusive because there is no Brazilian reporting that explores the historical developments, especially in multimedia platforms with interactivity resources, on data understanding and empathy with stateless people. In addition, to contribute to a more inclusive digital world, the site has accessibility features for people with disabilities, such as: 1) Keyboard: allows all visitors to navigate the site intuitively with only a keyboard (visual indicators, the blue box on click, was not used to not influence the aesthetics of the product); 2) Alt Text: it allows the reading of image for visually impaired people, unfortunately the platform does not support the description for all the images, like background and image of the track, but the description is available in the images of the galleries. Social networks also have the #PraCegoVer hashtag used as an accessibility feature; 3) Colors: The color palette was also designed in a simple way, to aid in reading and not influence the contrast. • Subtitles: to cater for the hearing impaired, all videos have the option of bilingual subtitles, in Portuguese and English. 4) Brazilian Sign Language (Pounds): With the impossibility of inserting automatic translation tools (Portuguese-Pounds) inside the site, I made available the download link of the VLibras tool on the Resilient Magazine homepage; in which readers may possibly perform the translation of audios, videos and texts available on the site.
What was the impact of your project? How did you measure it?
Although there are gaps, the reporting seeks to rescue the episode of prominence, in 2006 and 2007, with the international movement "Little Brazilians Stateless", created by the journalist Rui Martins, which made possible through Constitutional Amendment No. 54, the granting of nationality for children of Brazilians born abroad and to all people born in the country, including children of immigrants. At present, the issue of statelessness has been ruled in a shallow way by the great national media, for example, the reports on the forced displacements of the stateless Muslim people Rohingyas in Myanmar (BRAZIL, Acnur, 2017). In order to explore the theme, the need to produce a multimedia reporting is based on the absence of content with historical developments, especially on multimedia platforms with interactivity resources, for better understanding of data and empathy for the characters. In addition, realizing this project is a way of reinforcing and instigating the relevance of past, present and future contextualization, to distinguish the press based on an informational perspective absent in humanitarian coverage, regarding the individual historical burden.
Source and methodology
Stateless in Brazil is a multimedia reporting that aims to reveal who are the people, through numbers, in the national and international reports on statelessness. The text contains testimony from two stateless persons and a warm family, as well as interviews with a lawyer, social worker, educator, therapist and public and private sector employees in the area of health and work. Based on the initial data of the UNHCR in 2014, with an alarming number of more than 10 million people stateless or at risk of statelessness around the world; I continued searching for national data. In order to investigate the object, it was necessary to apply characteristics of data journalism, in which the system of compilation, cleaning, analysis and association of data was used; contextualizing facts that try to answer the reasons why people are considered stateless, and their consequences. The Law on Access to Information (LAI), 12,527/2011, served to find general data on stateless persons in the country. Despite this, I came across a certain divergence in the information contained in the reports of international Non-governmental organization to the official national bodies - especially as regards the number of stateless persons, due to the failures of identification during entry into the country. Throughout the process of making the multimedia reporting, one of the obstacles to the location of stateless persons in Brazil was due to the resistance of the press agencies of the official agencies to pass on the information. The justification: lack of data, due to the lack of recognition mechanisms in the country, before the Law of Migration. In one of the participations in the events with the theme Refugees, I had the opportunity to speak with an UNHCR representative and we discussed the discrepancy and absence of the updated data, as well as the confusion of identification of stateless persons in the country. The collaboration of professionals from the Brazilian media was also favorable to obtain such data, such as the journalist Fernando Jordão, Correio Braziliense, author of the article "Citizens of no place: DF has 11 residents without nationality", of where I extracted sources and characters for the story. Like Fernando, one of the greatest collaborations to obtain data was the journalist Pablo Pereira, of the newspaper O Estado de São Paulo (who also published articles about Maha Mamo), and made available a report of the National Register of Foreigners (RNE), sent to him by the Ministry of Justice\'s own press office in 2016. The challenge of locating the characters in Non-governmental organization and projects aimed at refugees and stateless persons (in which more than 60 institutions and projects were contacted throughout the country) of ignorance of the society in general and the protection on the part of the stateless ones. To contextualize the issue, I used in-depth interviews with available stateless persons from the Middle East: Maha Mamo from Lebanon and Ahmad Hosien from Saudi Arabia. Although I have met Maha several times at events, I opted for a face-to-face interview at her apartment in Belo Horizonte, to experience the sensations that her story would cause me in the first moment. For Ahmad Hosien, a resident of Brasilia, the depth interview was applied, but without many resources, due to the impossibility of displacement. For the specialists of diverse areas with focus on the resocialization, research interviews were used, with the objective to analyze what is happening in the Brazilian scenario and to cross with the documented information. In order to explore the multimedia universe of the vehicles that serve as a model for the project, in August an interview was conducted in the UOL TAB office in the city of São Paulo, with the editor Daniel Tozzi; in which I was presented the multimedia methodology used in the TAB and in the Brazilian market; besides the repercussion of the published reports. Because it was a sensitive subject, regarding the traumas of stateless people, I was concerned to report the facts ethically. Based on the premise of caution when merging data journalism with testimonials of real stories. For the editing of the content, redoubled care was necessary, in order to result in a balanced and reflective report to the reader - without any noises of manipulation (blatant ethical deviation).
The product is in the format of multimedia reporting, Stateless in Brazil, with hyperlink on the website of my digital magazine Resiliente (Wix platform). With the structure characterized to the application of the convergences of the media, it is contemplated: homepage; multi-media (YouTube, Facebook and Instagram); interactivity resources (maps, timeline and infographic); texts (longform reporting, profile and ping pong); photos (reporting/personal archive and essay); and videos (reporting and minidocumentarium using Draw My Life technique with drawings and the own voice of Maha Mamo, for a greater perception of the stateless reality). The chosen format was adopted to allow the varied possibilities offered to the presentation of the content in the digital environment; as the autonomy to narrate the facts with more detail and amplitude, besides allowing the readers\' interactivity with the videos, maps, timelines and infographic. Offering, parallel to the characters, a vision of involvement in the current Brazilian context with data, concepts and the experience of specialists. In the text of the report, I aggregated the content in the longform format with 25,276 characters (with spaces and without the content of the Timeline, Maps and Infographics), divided into 3 chapters explored in three tabs, with the following approaches: Chapter 1 - Past: narrative of the historical context of stateless persons in the Middle East (Saudi Arabia, Lebanon and Syria); and presentation of the timeline on statelessness. Chapter 2 - Present: contextualization of the current situation and quantity of stateless persons in Brazil; the assistance provided by the country, based on interviews with experts; and presentation of the timeline on statelessness. Chapter 3 - Future: perspective of tomorrow, based on the Migration Law, in force since November 24, 2017.